You don’t want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. III. Comment on their relative importance in relation to your overall interpretation of the results and, if necessary, note how they may affect the validity of the findings. [By the way, another similarity between organizing my garage and organizing writing is the need for some motivation. Regardless of where it's mentioned, a good discussion section includes analysis of any unexpected findings. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your study differs from other research about the topic. VI. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in … First proposed by author Stephen Toulmin in The Uses of Argument(1958), the Toulmin Method emphasizes building a thorough support structure for each of an argument's key claims. Once you have identified a meeting place … This paragraph should begin with a description of the unexpected finding, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, this is where you can address other questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or highlight previously hidden questions that were revealed as a result of conducting your research. Sometimes your professor will encourage you to expand the discussion in this way, while others don’t care what your opinion is beyond your efforts to interpret the data. Check the course home … These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results: The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: If more than one unexpected finding emerged during the study, describe each them in the order they appeared as you gathered the data. If needed, use subheadings to help organize your presentation or to group your interpretations into themes. Department of English Writing Guide. Respiratory Care 49 (October 2004); Kretchmer, Paul. The Organization. American Psychological Association, Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper, Fourteen Steps to Writing an Effective Discussion Section, Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. University of North Carolina; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the Discussion. Sometimes these tangents relate to the topic at hand. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. Education: Organizing the Learning Process . This is not necessary. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. • Discuss the interpretation of the unexpected results. University of Toronto; Summary: Using it Wisely. You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results, usually in one paragraph. George Mason University; One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. Remember that the data are the data: nothing more, nothing less. Set a schedule such as checking for new discussion postings only once a day. Combine standard flatware trays and bigger sizes for cooking tools to create a perfect fit. Avoid checking for postings to the discussions or submissions to the Dropbox several times a day. Make Suggestions for Further Research. Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem. The discussion section should remain focused on the findings of your study. It is a function in which the synchronization and combination of human, physical and financial resources takes place. This would demonstrate to the reader that you have inadequately examined and interpreted the data. Briefly reiterate for your readers the research problem or problems you are investigating and the methods you used to investigate them, then move quickly to describe the major findings of the study. Make Suggestions for Further Research. Note that any significant or unanticipated finding is often because there was no prior research to indicate the finding could occur. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. In every meeting, someone derails the discussion with a host of interesting tangents. If a limitation is applicable to the method chosen to gather information, then describe in detail the problems you encountered and why. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. If applicable, begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most significant or unanticipated finding first, then systematically review each finding. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! American Psychological Association gradPSYCH Magazine (January 2006). If appropriate, the discussion section is also where you state how the findings from your study revealed new gaps in the literature that had not been previously exposed or adequately described. Interview-based research is organized by topics, whereas screen-based research is … VI. George Mason University; Discussion. You may have to lead a discussion as part of a school assignment or you may be responsible for leading a discussion in a work setting. MacCoun, Robert J. Talk with people like human beings! Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings. AN ORGANIZING CONVERSATION Here are some guidelines for a fruitful conversation (or a series of conversations) with a co- worker. The main trick to imposing organization is to know some options and to choose one. Analyzing vs. Summarizing. Present the underlying meaning of your research, note possible implications in other areas of study, and explore possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research; Highlight the importance of your study and how it can contribute to understanding the research problem within the field of study. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your study differs from other research about the topic. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the, https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803, Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. In organizing your discussion, start from the specific to general • Emphasis the new or important findings from your results, then explain the reason behind these findings. Consider the likelihood that no one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have. All the three resources are important to get results. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Our intention here is not to recommend a “best way” of organizing the discussion space, but to raise some questions to consider when determining how to arrange your classroom. Before concluding the discussion, identify potential. Wondering how to organise a conference in 2019? It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. Follow this step-by-step guide. Nobody should follow a script mechanically, of course. Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were investigating and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction. Annesley, Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.” Clinical Chemistry 56 (November 2010): 1671-1674. NOTE: Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources is usually found in the discussion section. I. It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to. III. Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. Best practice: Create teams with a larger set of members and more channels. This article gives doctoral dissertation students valuable guidance on how to go about writing their Discussion chapter. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction; the discussion should always explain how your study has moved the reader's understanding of the research problem forward from where you left them at the end of the introduction. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but the discussion does not simply repeat or rearrange the first parts of your paper; the discussion clearly explain how your study advanced the reader's understanding of the research problem from where you left them at the end of your review of prior research. You should frame your suggestions by linking the need for further research to the limitations of your study [e.g., in future studies, the survey instrument should include more questions that ask..."] or linking to critical issues revealed from the data that were not considered initially in your research. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the interpretion of those results, not just the data itself. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address and describe the generalizability of your results to other situations. Writing in Psychology course syllabus. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in the introduction. Relate the Findings to Similar Studies, No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! Department of Biology. If there is prior research to indicate this, you need to explain why it was significant or unanticipated. Leaving the place a mess suits me fine. The Writing Center. Data (Grounds): You should use evidence t… Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings, Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. These points are filled out in more detail in the “Guidelines for Reflection and Discussion” section. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated, and to explain any new understanding or fresh insights about the problem after you've taken the findings into consideration. These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results: The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: You should make suggestions for further research in the discussion section. This part of the paper is not strictly governed by objective reporting of information but, rather, it is where you can engage in creative thinking about issues through evidence-based interpretation of findings. A group that never loses is probably just too naive or nearsighted to understand what's happening. Organizing is the function of management which follows planning. Lund Research Ltd., 2012; Summary: Using it Wisely. If a limitation is applicable to the method chosen to gather information, then describe in detail the problems you encountered and why. The basic format for the Toulmin Method is as follows: Claim:In this section, you explain your overall thesis on the subject. Moreover, some unanswered questions may have become more focused because of your study. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address, and.... Department of English Writing Guide. Department of Biology. 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