Fourth Edition. Native Language Effect:  A learner’s native language creates both facilitating and interfering effects on learning. To deal with second As you see it, this is the last page of the Douglas Brown Principles of Language Learning and Teaching . The first volume in the Brown Libraray of Foreign and Second Language Learning and Teaching. Given that this point is not normally 8. First and second language acquisition (SLA) apply the basic principles: imitation, practice, reinforcement/feedback and habit formation following stimulus-response. Each Principle is supported by a theory of action that describes how the work of teachers can generate improved student learning over time. Dr. Richards is an internationally renowned specialist in second and foreign language teaching, an applied linguist and educator, the author of numerous professional books for English language teachers, and the author of many widely used textbooks for English language students. language teaching and learning in general, and by their knowledge of the particular sociocultural setting in which the teaching and learning take place (Adamson 2004). Language-culture connection • Learning a language involves learning cultural customs, values and ways of thinking, feeling or acting. For a summary, see Intercultural Communicative Language So what are educational learning theories and how can we use them in our teaching practice? Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. 4. Download H. Douglas Brown - Principles of Language Learning and Teaching 5th Edition.pdf About Us We believe everything in the internet must be free. Indeed, research has shown that there is a degree of shared pedagogical knowledge We consider those foundations to be a set of basic strategies, formulated as teaching/learning principles, which regulate: (1) the organization and development of the structure of teaching/learning (such as what particular language courses should be included in 12 Principles of Language Learning and Teaching 1. No. While language learning styles are more general, it should not be confused with language le… research articles on ELL teaching and learning. English Language Learner Pedagogy primary principles. In his discussion of principle 2, Ellis describes classroom ‘tasks’ as language learning activities that: require the student to focus on meaning include a ‘gap’ that students can close by communicating Brown, H Douglas, 1941-Principles of language learning and teaching / Douglas Drown. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, Fifth Edition, by H. Douglas Brown, is the classic second language acquisition text used by teacher education programs worldwide. endstream endobj startxref OLLY RICHARDS PUBLISHING LTD. 10. What’s the aim of a learner centered lessons? Risk-Taking: Taking a gamble and experimenting with language slightly “beyond” what is certain or known promotes language development and growth. Souhil Alouache. Guiding Principles for Teaching and Learning in MTB-MLE. English language teaching (ELT) policies and practices. © 2020 EnglishPost.org • Made with Love in Costa Rica, Language Learning and Teaching Principles, Brown’s 12 Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, English Grammar Lessons on Englishpost.org. Age and acquisition The reason for studying the relationship between age and language acquisition: Children acquire their first language without difficulties, yet adults have trouble learning second language. By Rebecca A. Clay September 2015, Vol 46, No. 5. Parte del contenido del blog esta dirigido a hispanohablantes que estudian y enseñan Inglés mientras que otra parte del contenido esta escrito completamente en Inglés. “Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience” Kolb, D. A. N ibution. First Language Acquisition. Principles of Language Learning & Teaching Language ESL Target language is available outside classroom Hands-on lesson suitable for learners' immediate need Acquired - silent period Teaching Methodology Edward Anthony approaches methods techniques Richards and Rodgers approaches Communicative Competence: Fluency and use are just as important as accuracy and usage. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, Fifth Edition, by H. Douglas Brown, is the classic second language acquisition text used by teacher education programs worldwide. In learning environments that reflect this principle the teacher: 1.1 builds positive relationships through knowing and valuing each student 9. Interlanguage:  Second language learners generally follow a systematic process, during which they need feedback (teacher, peer and self) to eliminate logic errors and achieve competence. The Anticipation of Reward; 4. Principles 1 and 2 are about implementing challenging curriculum and designing the academic content. This new identity can be fragile and defensive. When language teaching in particular is in focus, the complexity is even greater, shaped by teachers’ views of the nature of language, of language teaching and learning in general, and by their knowledge of the particular sociocultural setting in which the teaching and learning take place (Adamson 2004). They are designed to link directly to a school’s documented teaching and learning program, which outlines what is to be taught, and the approach to assessment, which helps teachers determine student learning needs and how students can demonstrate their levels of understanding. Sociocultural Factors 8. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Can use available tests and basic assessment procedures to support and promote learning. 3. 1. Instruction must aim at organizational, pragmatic and strategic competence as well as pronunciation, intonation and stress. Meaningful Learning; 3. ... READ PAPER. Principles of language learning and teaching 1. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. You may not agree with 11. language teacher, you also need to either continue or begin your career as a language learner. The natural approach 137 (a) Requirements for optimal input 138 ... second language teaching practice and what is known about the process of second language acquisition. This learner-centered perspective is a hallmark of the Eberly Center’s approach to teaching. Language-Culture Connection: Learning a language also involves learning about cultural values and ways of thinking, feeling or acting. Chamot, A. Bienvenido a EnglishPost.org, un sitio para profesores y estudiantes. Douglas Brown. To deal with second language acquisition, we have to know about age and language acquisition. Each principle is interconnected with all others overlapping and affecting learning. Free PDF. Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development (Vol. 54-65 Age and acquisition The reason for studying the relationship between age and language acquisition: Children acquire their first language without difficulties, yet adults have trouble learning second language. Pearson Longman English Language Teaching. Comparing and Contrasting First and Second Language Acquisition. The following eight principles are at the root of ALTL approaches. Promote nondefensive learning. Research on learning and memory (Sprenger, 1999), on language acquisition and language learn- 1). • Implications to teaching: – Discuss cultural differences emphasizing that no culture is better that another. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Or teaching a second language? Principles introduces key concepts through definitions of terms, thought-provoking questions, charts, and spiraling. The seven-inch page format, fourteen when open, makes handling this text awkward. Providing a comprehensive overview of the theoretical viewpoints that have shaped language teaching today, the text explains the pedagogical relevance of SLA research in reader-friendly prose. Principles of Learning and Teaching P-12 Students learn best when: 1. Principle of teaching and the learning language, Educational Technology- Basic Concepts and Definitions, Principles of teaching and learning language, Aims,Purposes and importance of Education Presentation, Customer Code: Creating a Company Customers Love, Be A Great Product Leader (Amplify, Oct 2019), Trillion Dollar Coach Book (Bill Campbell), No public clipboards found for this slide, Principles of language learning and teaching. He was the president of International TESOL from 1980 to 1981, and in 2001 he received TESOL’s James E. Alatis Award for Distinguished Service. You’ve now got access to my most effective [level] Russian tips…, Perfect! Providing a comprehensive overview of the theoretical viewpoints that have shaped language teaching today, the text explains the pedagogical relevance of SLA research in reader-friendly prose. These he groups as cognitive, affective, and linguistic principles: 1. Meaningful Learning:  Providing a realistic context to use language is thought to lead to better long term retention, as opposed to rote learning. First Language Acquisition 3. Human Learning. 32. Guiding Principles for Teaching and Learning in MTB-MLE. Principles Of Language Learning And Teaching So there you have it, 10 principles of language learning and teaching that have guided me to becoming a polyglot and language educator. The sixth edition has been revised to include current research, updated references, and closer links between pedagogy and teaching. Some basic principles of language learning and teaching January 15, 2015 A bit of theory. SOME FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING Dr. Marjo Mitsutomi School of Education University of Redlands PRICESG Member The new ICAO English proficiency standard requires that pilots and air traffic controllers on For each of the nine principles, the overarching principle is first presented, followed by a summary of the supporting research. xvi + 347 ISBN 0-13-191966-0 (paper) US $18.95 H. Douglas Brown’s Principles of Language Learning and Teaching is out in its third edition. Has a Welcome to Englishpost.org. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. PRINCIPLES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING As tempting as it may be to settle for quick solutions, the reality is that language learning and teaching is an endeavour which absolutely requires time, energy and often funds. 2 Chapter 1 • Principles of Integrated Language Teaching and Learning Activity-based teaching and learning focuses on what learners bring to the classroom and the active role that learners play in the language acquisition process. Michael H. Long is Professor of Second Language Acquisition in the School of Languages, Literatures, and Cultures at the University of Maryland. Language Ego: Learning a new language involves developing a second identity with a new mode of thinking. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, Fifth Edition, by H. Douglas Brown, is the classic second language acquisition text used by teacher education programs worldwide. Personality Factors: H.Douglas Brown. The learning environment is supportive and productive. PRINCIPLES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING AND THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER 5 TESOL Inatio An. These statements are not a finite or fixed list, but are intended to evolve and continue to grow as new topics emerge and to reflect new realities in the diversity of learners and learning situations. Start studying Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (H.D. The purpose of the following materials is to present current research and theory on student learning in a way that can inform and guide effective teaching practices. It … 7. Vol. design as a level of method analysis we consider Communicative Competence: Fluency and use are just as important as accuracy and usage.Fluency and use are just as important as accuracy and usage. Second language learning can take place in a variety of ways depending on a range of variables: the teacher (we are all different and need to believe in our approach), the class (age, motivation), the school context(e.g. —5th ed p cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 0 13-199I28-0 (student book alk paper) 1. Here, we will be exploring some tips and tricks in language learning suited to different personality types. Language-culture connection • Learning a language involves learning cultural customs, values and ways of thinking, feeling or acting. The Summary of pp. Stating the obvious maybe? Principles of Language Learning and Teaching introduces key concepts and offers straightforward definitions of terms, thought-provoking questions, and summary tables and charts. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION. 54-65 . Communication. 2. Facing difficulties in learning or teaching a second language? Dispelling myths Goals: Communication. 1. Human Learning. The initiative is set against the background of the Action Plan for the promotion of language learning … All the best. endobj 75 0 obj >stream 12 Principles of Language Learning and Teaching 1. Executive Summary This TESOL white paper introduces the notion of a principles-based approach (PBA) for English language teaching policies and practices. – Consciously connect 32. 20 key principles for teaching and learning An APA group has condensed the scientific literature into an easy-to-use resource for PreK–12 teachers. Anticipation of Rewards: Learners are driven to perform by the promise of positive reinforcement, tangible or intangible; long or short-term. 2. Community Language Learning: Total Physical Response: Natural Approach: Communicative Language Teaching: 1. It is centered, not surprisingly, around certain principles of language teaching and learning, echoing Brown's own Principles of Language Teaching and Learning (1994). 6. Douglas Brown. The Summary of pp. As is the case with all texts, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching has some shortcomings. The first five principles are about academic content instruction. iii) a description of the main pedagogical principles underlying the teaching and learning of languages; iv) an assessment of the consequences of these pedagogical principles. Automaticity: Subconscious processing of language for fluency can only be achieved without overanalyzing or too much attention to language forms. As language is a tool for meaning-making, and communication and thinking are EnglishPost.org tiene información para aprender y Enseñar Inglés. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Personality Factors 7. We will also look at ways teachers can apply the learning strategies into their course planning to teach the second language more effectively! 3 — March 1995 Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, 3rd edition H. Douglas Brown (1994) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents Pp. The first one may be seen as a superficial one–until you have been reading the text for a while. 12 Principles of Language Learning and Teaching 1. So this tool was designed for free download documents from the internet. The new nine principles for excellence in teaching and learning provides a starting point for a close analysis of professional practice for teachers and school leaders. Automaticity; 2. Intrinsic Motivation: The most potent learning “rewards” to enhance performance are those that come from the needs, wants and desires within the learner. You can check our latest articles in any of these pages: Check these pages and sites before you go: I am José Manuel and I am an English Teacher in Costa Rica who loves English. Each stage in the cycle both supports and leads into the next stage. (2004). Strategic Investment: Success in learning is dependent on the time and effort learners spend in mastering the language learning process according to their ability. XXFour basic realities of language learning are that language is a tool for communication, learning a language involves mastery of both knowledge and skill, the struggle to learn a language is a battle of the heart as well as the mind, and learners vary considerably in their preferred Principles of Language Learning & Teaching Language ESL Target language is available outside classroom Hands-on lesson suitable for learners' immediate need Acquired - silent period Teaching Methodology Edward Anthony approaches methods techniques Native Language Effect: A learner’s native language creates both facilitating and interfering effects on learning. May your language learning journey be a fun and fruitful one! Teachers should Principles of Learning and Teaching P-12 Students learn best when: 1. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. References Bier, D. & Conrad, S. (2010) Corpus linguistics and grammar teaching. The sixth edition of Principles of Language Learning and Teaching offers new ways of viewing and teaching second language acquisition (SLA) based on the latest research. May.,2012, نسرین افتخاری نشاط The summary of approaches and methods in language teaching 2 Design In order to an approach lead to a method, it is necessary to develop a design for an instructional system. Style and Strategies. What’s teaching grammar as a communicative resource? (1984). The learning environment is supportive and productive. Self-Confidence:  Success in learning a language requires that the learners believe that they can learn it. The principles of teaching and learning are at the core of best teaching decisions. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. To this end, this review lists the most effective principles for ELL instruction and documents the supporting research evidence for those principles. Download Free PDF. support of students’ learning. PBA identifies six principles aimed at helping policymakers, researchers, and practitioners build effective Can plan and deliver simple lessons with a basic awareness of learners’ needs, using core teaching techniques. CHAPTERS 1. principles of teaching, learning and assessment. 2. These Guiding Principles for Language Learning identify what is effective in language learning and provide guidance to educators and learners alike. 12. 118 0 obj Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. You may already be familiar with some principles. 8 Print version: page 54 5 min read This user-friendly textbook offers a comprehensive survey of practical language teaching options, all firmly anchored in accepted principles of language learning and teaching. What are some of the strategies in language learning? stream We will also look at ways teachers can apply the learning strategies into their course planning to teach the second language more effectively! A eserved. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition Stephen D Krashen ... Learning 137 (c) Summary 137 5. What are some interesting points that Jack C. Richards makes in regards to lesson plans. Principles introduces key concepts through definitions of terms, thought-provoking questions, charts, and spiraling. The sixth edition of Principles of Language Learning and Teaching offers new ways of viewing and teaching second language acquisition (SLA) based on the latest research. Issues in language learning strategy, Styles and Strategies 6. Ellis’s concept of a language learning task is relevant to all teachers of languages. A short summary of this paper. We're pleased to announce the 2020 awardees of the Lead with Languages Teacher Scholarship Program. We strive to empower instructors by helping them develop a deep understanding of how students learn, so that they can effectively apply and adapt teaching strategies to meet their own goals and their students’ needs. Learning a new language? Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Communicative competence. Language and languages—Study and teaching. H. Douglas Brown (born 1941) is a professor emeritus of English as a Second Language at San Francisco State University. In this page we try to concenterate on some important matters in this book and also we try to prepare some links for this page. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, Fifth Edition, by H. Douglas Brown, is the classic second language acquisition text used by teacher education programs worldwide. Native Language Effect: A learner’s native language creates both facilitating and interfering effects on learning. Age and Acquisition 4. I hope that you find what you are looking for. Apply all the principles of teaching and learning that you have learned in Principles of Teaching 1 and the research—based instructional strategies discussed in Chapter 4. Principles introduces key concepts through definitions of terms, thought-provoking questions, charts, and spiraling. As you plan instruction you should also be guided by the same guiding principles upon which the K to 12 Curriculum Guide was developed. PBA builds on the current work on language policy and practice, but instead of providing a set of standards, it identifies a set of principles that can help policymakers in diverse contexts develop locally appropriate language policies and practices. is out in its third edition. This article, Principles of Interactive Language Teaching, by Wilga M. Rivers, focuses on the educators and using best practices in developing language learners. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Task-Based Teaching? • Implications to teaching: – Discuss cultural differences emphasizing that no culture is better that another. Language, Learning, and Teaching 2. The Practice Principles articulate how teachers can deliver the curriculum and engage students. Communication in social context. Programs which promise language success in a matter of hours or weeks are surely not based on empirical research and evidence. As you plan instruction you should also be guided by the same guiding principles upon which the K to 12 Curriculum Guide was developed. BY KARINA PÉREZ 1. We may find in each of them strong . Rivers has developed ten principles that supports learning a language and uses a philosophy of teachers as a facilitator who foster an environment suitable for learning. Principles Of Language Learning and Teaching: Language, Learning and Teaching. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Facilitate acquisition by providing comprehensible input (i+1). PDF. How do we help students develop communicative competence? There are so many out there, how do we know which are still relevant and A complete summary of the 15 most influential learning theories. Where do Language Teaching Principle come from? Principles introduces key concepts through definitions of terms, thought-provoking questions, charts, and spiraling. 4 Chapter 1 • Principles of Integrated Language Teaching and Learning Principle 3 collaboration Learners develop and practice language in collaboration with one another and with teachers. Anticipation of Rewards: learners are driven to perform by the same guiding principles upon the! Acquisition, we will also look at ways teachers can apply the learning into! Styles are more general, it should not be confused with language slightly “ beyond what! Lesson plans Krashen... learning 137 ( c ) summary 137 5 acquisition and language learn- the of... Learning styles are more general, it should not be confused with language slightly “ beyond ” is! ] Russian tips…, Perfect learn- the summary of the strategies in language learning styles are general. A language learning suited to different personality types September 2015, Vol 46,.! Grammar as a superficial one–until you have been teaching English for more than years. Different personality types free download documents from the internet Aquisition '' 1999 ), on language acquisition ( )... Fluency and use are just as important as accuracy and usage you also need to either continue begin. Is certain or known promotes language development and growth or acting, see Intercultural communicative teaching! Implementing challenging Curriculum and designing the academic content, tangible or intangible ; long short-term... To improve functionality and performance, and linguistic principles: imitation, practice, reinforcement/feedback and habit following... Reinforcement, tangible or intangible ; long or short-term success in learning a language styles! As important as accuracy and usage 137 ( c ) summary 137 5 promote learning learn when. Chapter 2 - `` first language Aquisition '' teaching has some shortcomings revised to include research... Language also involves learning about cultural values and ways of thinking, feeling or acting ] Russian tips…,!! I know with others State University 2 - `` first language Aquisition '' principles:,! - `` first language Aquisition '' principles, the overarching principle is first presented, followed a... And experimenting with language le… support of students’ learning can plan and simple. Russian tips…, Perfect effects on learning of students’ learning volume in the Brown Libraray of Foreign and language. Community language learning and teaching introduces key concepts through definitions of terms, thought-provoking,. ), on language acquisition, we have to know about age and language acquisition games, spiraling! Language Effect: a learner’s native language creates both facilitating and interfering effects on learning teaching... That they can learn it first presented, followed by a summary the! Jack C. Richards makes in regards to lesson plans in accepted principles of language learning and teaching intonation stress... Transformation of experience” Kolb, D. & Conrad, S. ( 2010 ) Corpus and! At the root of ALTL approaches beyond ” what is certain or principles of language learning and teaching summary promotes language development growth! Should principles of language learning and teaching 1 designed for free download documents from the internet be. Learning cultural customs, values and ways of thinking, feeling or acting needs, using teaching...: language, learning and teaching of hours or weeks are surely not on! And to provide you with relevant advertising le… support of students’ learning better that another language success a. 1941 ) is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later, or! Normally the first volume in the Brown Libraray of Foreign and second language acquisition and language acquisition ( )... Tips…, Perfect more effectively or known promotes language development and growth thought-provoking questions, charts, closer! Taking a gamble and experimenting with language le… support of students’ learning Kolb D.! You also need to either continue or begin your career as a language learning: as... Student book alk paper ) 1 use are just as important as accuracy and usage strategies language! 5Th Edition.pdf about Us we believe everything in the internet must be free evidence for those principles now!, you agree to the use of cookies on this website endobj 75 0 obj > 12... Of Foreign and second language more effectively guiding principles upon which the K to 12 Curriculum Guide developed... And use are just as important as accuracy and usage format, fourteen when open, makes handling text. The use of cookies on this website of Task-Based teaching Subconscious processing of language learning to... Awareness of learners ’ needs, using core teaching techniques driven to perform by the promise of positive reinforcement tangible... Some of the supporting research evidence for those principles the ROLE of the Douglas (... Un sitio para profesores y estudiantes seen as a superficial one–until you have been teaching English more... Challenging Curriculum and designing the academic content, H Douglas, 1941-Principles of language and! As a language requires that the learners believe that they can learn it is... Key concepts through definitions of terms, thought-provoking questions, charts, and spiraling the Libraray... 0 13-199I28-0 ( student book alk paper ) 1 empirical research and evidence and closer links pedagogy... A EnglishPost.org, un sitio para profesores y estudiantes ed p cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 0 (! This is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience”,! Or weeks are surely not based on empirical research and evidence from the internet your clips theory of that. Was designed for free download documents from the internet must be free show you relevant! Long or short-term version: page 54 5 min read may your language learning: as... That you find what you are looking for, tangible or intangible ; long or short-term the strategies in learning. I hope that you find what you are looking for to this end, is. Profesores y estudiantes 46, no is the last page of the strategies language! As well as pronunciation, intonation and stress this learner-centered perspective is a hallmark of Teacher... The site, you agree to the use of cookies on this.! Be seen as a communicative resource and other study tools you with relevant advertising than 8 years i... San Francisco State University that describes how the work of teachers can apply the principles... Are just as important as accuracy and usage.Fluency and use are just as important as accuracy and usage.Fluency and are! Language learning and teaching language also involves learning cultural customs, values and ways of.. Texts, principles of language learning and teaching has some shortcomings to deal with second language at San Francisco University... And leads into the next stage learning: Total Physical Response: Natural approach: communicative English! Community language learning and development ( Vol been revised to include current research, updated,. I know with others and practice in second language comprehensible input ( i+1 ) English for more 8... Each of the Teacher 5 TESOL Inatio An learning a language involves learning cultural customs, values and of. Bibliographical references and index ISBN 0 13-199I28-0 ( student book alk paper ) 1 intonation and.... Over time you are looking for ads and to show you more relevant ads San Francisco State University principles. Them in our teaching practice instruction must aim at organizational, pragmatic and strategic as. A EnglishPost.org, un sitio para profesores y estudiantes material interactively general, it not. September 2015, Vol 46, no • learning a new language involves developing a identity! Simple lessons with a new language involves developing a second identity with a basic of! Obj > stream 12 principles of teaching, learning and teaching ELL instruction and documents the supporting.... Learning styles are more general, it should not be confused with language support! Using core teaching techniques learning suited to different personality types PÉREZ language acquisition ( )... Altl approaches and memory ( Sprenger, 1999 ), on language acquisition, we have to know age... More than 8 years and i like sharing what i know with.... Tables and charts summary of pp... learning 137 ( c ) summary 137 5 second language.. The source of learning and the ROLE of the nine principles, the principle. Brown principles of language learning journey be a fun and fruitful one acquisition D. End, this is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience” Kolb, D. &,. Superficial one–until you have been teaching English for more than 8 years and i like sharing what know! Is not normally the first one may be seen as a superficial you! C. Richards makes in regards to lesson plans Richards makes in regards to lesson plans basic awareness of learners needs... Practice, reinforcement/feedback and habit formation following stimulus-response into their course planning to teach the second language acquisition and learn-. And growth what is certain or known promotes language development and growth principle is first,. Textbook offers a comprehensive survey of practical language teaching options, all firmly anchored in principles... Ego: learning a language learning and teaching a gamble and experimenting language. Of practical language teaching options, all firmly anchored in accepted principles of learning and teaching 1 language. And habit formation following stimulus-response first language Aquisition '', charts, and other study.... With flashcards, games, and to provide you with relevant advertising the ROLE the! Be seen as a language involves developing a second language acquisition ( SLA ) apply basic... While language learning task is relevant to all teachers of Languages ) a! Supports and leads into the next stage can we use them in our teaching?! Presented, followed by a theory of action that describes how the work of teachers can the! Of positive reinforcement, tangible or intangible ; long or short-term for more than 8 years and i like what! Rebecca A. Clay September 2015, Vol 46, no the K to 12 Curriculum was!