The city walls were repaired and their extensions laid out, while the construction of the Cairo Citadel was commenced. Saladin war ein Herrscher und Begründer der Dynastie der Ayyubiden, der als legendärer erster Sultan von Ägypten und Syrien mit der Rückeroberung Jerusalems von den christlichen Kreuzfahrern in der Schlacht bei Hattin (1187) als Freiheitsheld in die Geschichtsbücher der muslimischen Welt einging. He ordered one of his generals, Farrukh-Shah, to guard the Damascus frontier with a thousand of his men to watch for an attack, then to retire, avoiding battle, and to light warning beacons on the hills, after which Saladin would march out. Richard suggested that his niece Eleanor, Fair Maid of Brittany be the bride instead, an idea that Saladin also rejected. In retaliation, Saladin twice besieged Kerak, Raynald's fortress in Oultrejordain, in 1183 and 1184. Although the Crusader force consisted of only 375 knights, Saladin hesitated to ambush them because of the presence of highly skilled generals. Their surrender ended 88 years of crusader occupation of the city. His death left Saladin with political independence and in a letter to as-Salih, he promised to "act as a sword" against his enemies and referred to the death of his father as an "earthquake shock". [84], As Saladin approached Mosul, he faced the issue of taking over a large city and justifying the action. However, he left three Christian cities unclaimed and when news filtered back to Europe at the loss of Jerusalem there was a shock and a burning desire for a new crusade. Saladin died of a fever on the 4 March 1193, in Damascus. “Biography of Saladin”, Oxford, UK. Saladin promptly impressed the inhabitants of the town by publishing a decree that ordered a number of taxes to be canceled and erased all mention of them from treasury records, stating "the most miserable rulers are those whose purses are fat and their people thin". For an unknown reason he apparently changed his plans regarding the pilgrimage and was seen inspecting the Nile River banks in June. He also promised that if Mosul was given to him, it would lead to the capture of Jerusalem, Constantinople, Georgia, and the lands of the Almohads in the Maghreb, "until the word of God is supreme and the Abbasid caliphate has wiped the world clean, turning the churches into mosques". [56], Saladin had by now agreed truces with his Zengid rivals and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (the latter occurred in the summer of 1175), but faced a threat from the Isma'ili sect known as the Assassins, led by Rashid ad-Din Sinan. Al-Maqrizi added to the rumor by claiming Muhammad's tomb was going to be relocated to Crusader territory so Muslims would make pilgrimages there. Saladin was born the very night that the family left Tikrit forever, so while the town was his birthplace, it was never his home. Saladin was later enraged when he received a message from Arslan accusing Nur al-Din of more abuses against his daughter. Most Muslim historians claim that Saladin's uncle, the governor of Hama, mediated a peace agreement between him and Sinan. [40] Saladin rode across the desert with 700 picked horsemen, passing through al-Kerak then reaching Bosra. [61], After leaving the an-Nusayriyah Mountains, Saladin returned to Damascus and had his Syrian soldiers return home. In Saladin’s possession at the time of his death were one piece of gold and forty pieces of silver. He spent the rest of the year in Syria without a confrontation with his enemies. Prior to his death, he had his chief officers swear an oath of loyalty to Izz al-Din, as he was the only Zengid ruler strong enough to oppose Saladin. Saladin took this as an evil omen and he never saw Egypt again. According to Abu Shama, he intended to spend the fast of Ramadan in Egypt and then make the hajj pilgrimage to Mecca in the summer. Imad ad-Din wrote that after the brief mourning period for Shirkuh, during which "opinions differed", the Zengid emirs decided upon Saladin and forced the caliph to "invest him as vizier". [74] He arrived in Damascus in June to learn that Farrukh-Shah had attacked the Galilee, sacking Daburiyya and capturing Habis Jaldek, a fortress of great importance to the Crusaders. They went first to Tripoli, then to Antioch. With this victory, Saladin decided to call in more troops from Egypt; he requested al-Adil to dispatch 1,500 horsemen. The Crusaders had controlled Jerusalem since 1099 and the First Crusade. While transporting these goods to Damascus, Saladin took the opportunity to ravage the Crusader countryside. The Franks urged her to approach Saladin herself with her grievance. [50] Soon after, Saladin entered Homs and captured its citadel in March 1175, after stubborn resistance from its defenders. As the Crusaders hurried down to attack the Muslim forces, they fell into disorder, with the infantry falling behind. Throughout his life, he was generous with material objects, preferring to give away wealth to the poor. After Shawar was assassinated and Shirkuh died in 1169, al-Adid appointed Saladin vizier, a rare nomination of a Sunni Muslim to such an important position in the Isma'ili Shia caliphate. Afterward, in the spring of 1170, Nur ad-Din sent Saladin's father to Egypt in compliance with Saladin's request, as well as encouragement from the Baghdad-based Abbasid caliph, al-Mustanjid, who aimed to pressure Saladin in deposing his rival caliph, al-Adid. Nur al-Din asked Saladin to mediate the issue, but Arslan refused. [136] A governorate centered around Tikrit and Samarra in modern-day Iraq, Saladin Governorate, is named after him, as is Salahaddin University in Erbil, the largest city of Iraqi Kurdistan. Raynald responded by looting a caravan of pilgrims on the Hajj in 1185. When his wife complained at a lack of money to buy clothes, he responded. Several Egyptian emirs were thus killed, but al-Adid was told that they were killed for rebelling against him. Al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: الناصر صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب‎, romanized: Al-Nāṣir Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; Kurdish: سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی‎, romanized: Selahedînê Eyûbî; 1137 – 4 March 1193), better known simply as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (/ˈsælədɪn/;), was a Sunni Kurd and the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. Two emirs, including an old friend of Saladin, Izz al-Din Jurduk, welcomed and pledged their service to him. Saladin, at age 26, went along with them. Saladin aimed to counter this propaganda by ending the siege, claiming that he was defending Islam from the Crusaders; his army returned to Hama to engage a Crusader force there. In the early summer of 1174, Nur ad-Din was mustering an army, sending summons to Mosul, Diyar Bakr, and the Jazira in an apparent preparation of attack against Saladin's Egypt. The Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad, al Mustarshid, had appointed his father Ayyub, an earnest Muslim, skilled in administration and diplomacy, as the governor of the town. [27] Having gained more power and independence than ever before in his career, he still faced the issue of ultimate loyalty between al-Adid and Nur ad-Din. Previously, Saladin offered to mediate relations between Nur al-Din and Kilij Arslan II—the Seljuk sultan of Rûm—after the two came into conflict. [111] Bahā' ad-Dīn .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, The motives of this massacre are differently told; according to some, the captives were slain by way of reprisal for the death of those Christians whom the Musulmans had slain. After the treaty, Saladin and Richard sent each other many gifts as tokens of respect but never met face to face. As a youngster, he had a sincere interest in religious matters but was increasingly involved in military affairs … Saladin was unnerved at the attempt on his life, which he accused Gumushtugin and the Assassins of plotting, and so increased his efforts in the siege. Saladin wrote in a letter to al-Adil: "this Yemen is a treasure house ... We conquered it, but up to this day we have had no return and no advantage from it. It is equally true that his generosity, his piety, devoid of fanaticism, that flower of liberality and courtesy which had been the model of our old chroniclers, won him no less popularity in Frankish Syria than in the lands of Islam. Saladin abided by a sense of chivalry and honour, which appealed to the code of crusader knights. When was Saladin Said born? Saladin grew up in Mosul and later Damascus. He complied and the truce between him and the Zengids officially ended in September 1182. On 21 May, he camped outside the city, positioning himself east of the Citadel of Aleppo, while his forces encircles the suburb of Banaqusa to the northeast and Bab Janan to the west. In 1191 Saladin destroyed the fortifications in Gaza build by King Baldwin III for the Knights Templar. The Battle of Hama did not end the contest for power between the Ayyubids and the Zengids, with the final confrontation occurring in the spring of 1176. You know what? Saladin has become a prominent figure in Muslim, Arab, Turkish and Kurdish culture, and has been described as the most famous Kurd in history. However, the original sarcophagus was not replaced; instead, the mausoleum, which is open to visitors, now has two sarcophagi: the marble one placed on the side and the original wooden one, which covers Saladin's tomb. On 2 October 1187, Saladin completed his victory by forcing the surrender of Christian forces at the City of Jerusalem under Raynald of Chatillon. Saladin led the Muslim military campaign against the Crusader states in the Levant. He was one of the founders of the Iron Lords and helped end the Dark Age of Risen Warlords to establish the City Age. a. The medieval historian Ibn Athir relates a passage from another commander: "...both you and Saladin are Kurds and you will not let power pass into the hands of the Turks." [17] In addition to Islam, Saladin had a knowledge of the genealogies, biographies, and histories of the Arabs, as well as the bloodlines of Arabian horses. Three years later ad-Din died leaving Saladin as the ruler of both Egypt and Syria. Last updated 1 March 2020. [107], Saladin was on friendly terms with Queen Tamar of Georgia. His personal name was "Yusuf"; "Salah ad-Din" is a laqab, an honorific epithet, meaning "Righteousness of the Faith". 602 BCE b. Pahlitzsch, Johannes, "Georgians and Greeks in Jerusalem (1099–1310)", in Ciggaar & Herman (1996), pp. It was his birth name after his father b. [118] He had given away his great wealth to his poor subjects, leaving nothing to pay for his funeral. Seeing the execution of Raynald, he feared he would be next. Saladin (An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub) was born (1138) to a Kurdish family in Tikrit (now part of northern Iraq and the birthplace of Saddam Hussein). After scattered fighting in little valleys to the south of the main position, the Zengid central force returned to the offensive; Saladin joined in from the rear. [31], According to Imad ad-Din, Nur ad-Din wrote to Saladin in June 1171, telling him to reestablish the Abbasid caliphate in Egypt, which Saladin coordinated two months later after additional encouragement by Najm ad-Din al-Khabushani, the Shafi'i faqih, who vehemently opposed Shia rule in the country. Published 16 March 2008. [23], Shirkuh was in a power struggle over Egypt with Shawar and Amalric I of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, in which Shawar requested Amalric's assistance. He razed the castle to the ground and secured a vulnerable flank to Damascus. [121] They were: The sons listed by Imad number fifteen, but elsewhere he writes that Saladin was survived by seventeen sons and one daughter. A siege was set, but the governor of Tell Khalid surrendered upon the arrival of Saladin himself on 17 May before a siege could take place. Saladin was born to a well-off Kurdish family in Tikrit and grew up in Ba'lbek and Damascus. Saladin offered him the city of Busra and property in Damascus in exchange for Harim, but when Surhak asked for more, his own garrison in Harim forced him out. The Christians sent a large portion of their army to besiege the fortress of Harim north of Aleppo, so southern Palestine bore few defenders. After dealing with internal threats, he turned to the threat posed by western-backed Christians forces who often harried his people and armies. [101] An unusually low ransom for the times (around US$50 today[when?]) If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. It was a major disaster for the Crusaders and a turning point in the history of the Crusades. Saladin's role in this expedition was minor, and it is known that he was ordered by Shirkuh to collect stores from Bilbais prior to its siege by a combined force of Crusaders and Shawar's troops. [130][131][132][133], In 1898, German Emperor Wilhelm II visited Saladin's tomb to pay his respects. This defeat proved to be a turning point as after this set-back Saladin rebuilt his army into a more effective fighting force. In this emergency, the emir of Damascus appealed to Saif al-Din of Mosul (a cousin of Gumushtigin) for assistance against Aleppo, but he refused, forcing the Syrians to request the aid of Saladin, who complied. This time, Egyptian forces advanced from Aswan and captured the Nubian town of Ibrim. Seeing that confrontation was unavoidable, Saladin prepared for battle, taking up a superior position at the Horns of Hama, hills by the gorge of the Orontes River. Saladin is buried in a mausoleum and his tomb is located at the Umayyad mosque … Christian forces were based in the Principality of Antioch, Jerusalem and the County of Tripoli. He could also take it upon himself to annex Syria before it could possibly fall into the hands of a rival, but he feared that attacking a land that formerly belonged to his master—forbidden in the Islamic principles in which he believed—could portray him as hypocritical, thus making him unsuitable for leading the war against the Crusaders. Several days later, while Saladin was resting in one of his captain's tents, an Assassin rushed forward at him and struck at his head with a knife. [112], In October 1191, Richard began restoring the inland castles on the coastal plain beyond Jaffa in preparation for an advance on Jerusalem. Saladin Ayyubid Sultan In Power 1174–1193 Crowned 1174 Cairo Born Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb Muslim year 532 (Between Sept. 19, 1137 and Sept. 8, 1138) Tikrit, Mesopotamia Died Mar. Modern Arab states have sought to commemorate Saladin through various measures, often based on the image created of him in the 19th-century west. Saladin. [102][103] Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem organised and contributed to a collection that paid the ransoms for about 18,000 of the poorer citizens, leaving another 15,000 to be enslaved. [38], In the wake of Nur ad-Din's death, Saladin faced a difficult decision; he could move his army against the Crusaders from Egypt or wait until invited by as-Salih in Syria to come to his aid and launch a war from there. When the treaty was concluded, the younger sister of as-Salih came to Saladin and requested the return of the Fortress of A'zaz; he complied and escorted her back to the gates of Aleppo with numerous presents. [18], Saladin's military career began under the tutelage of his uncle Asad al-Din Shirkuh, a prominent military commander under Nur ad-Din, the Zengid emir of Damascus and Aleppo and the most influential teacher of Saladin. Zangi would hold these territories as Saladin's vassals on terms of military service. Richard never met Saladin, but through his dealings with Saladin’s brother, Richard came to respect and admire Saladin. On 4 July 1187, at the Battle of Hattin, he faced the combined forces of Guy of Lusignan, King Consort of Jerusalem, and Raymond III of Tripoli. [29] Saladin himself had been strengthening his hold on Egypt and widening his support base there. [69], After Nur al-Din and Saladin met at Geuk Su, the top Seljuk emir, Ikhtiyar al-Din al-Hasan, confirmed Arslan's submission, after which an agreement was drawn up. His assaults were again resisted, but he managed to secure not only a truce, but a mutual alliance with Aleppo, in which Gumushtigin and as-Salih were allowed to continue their hold on the city and in return, they recognized Saladin as the sovereign over all of the dominions he conquered. They intercepted Crusader reinforcements from Karak and Shaubak along the Nablus road and took a number of prisoners. [68], In June 1180, Saladin hosted a reception for Nur al-Din Muhammad, the Artuqid emir of Keyfa, at Geuk Su, in which he presented him and his brother Abu Bakr with gifts, valued at over 100,000 dinars according to Imad al-Din. His personal name was "Yusuf"; "Salah ad-Din" is a laqab, an honorific epithet, meaning "Righteousness of the Faith". [37] In 1174, Saladin sent Turan-Shah to conquer Yemen to allocate it and its port Aden to the territories of the Ayyubid Dynasty. Saladin wurde um 1137 geboren . [42] He installed himself in the castle and received the homage and salutations of the inhabitants. The Zengid prisoners of war, however, were given gifts and freed. He was arrested by Saladin's deputy Taqi al-Din on allegations that he was planning to cede Harim to Bohemond III of Antioch. When the siege had started, Saladin was unwilling[100] to promise terms of quarter to the Frankish inhabitants of Jerusalem. In April 1191, a Frankish woman's three-month-old baby had been stolen from her camp and sold on the market. [11] In Saladin's era, no scholar had more influence than sheikh Abdul Qadir Gilani, and Saladin was strongly influenced and aided by him and his pupils. Crusaders who came to the Holy Land had been brought up on propaganda that Arabs were bad people, on meeting the conduct of Saladin, they may have been surprised that the reality was different to the prejudicial views back in Europe. Soon after, he defeated the Zengid army at the Battle of the Horns of Hama and was thereafter proclaimed the "Sultan of Egypt and Syria" by the Abbasid caliph al-Mustadi. [47] On 11 May 1175, a group of thirteen Assassins easily gained admission into Saladin's camp, but were detected immediately before they carried out their attack by Nasih al-Din Khumartekin of Abu Qubays. According to Jonathan Riley-Smith, Scott's portrayal of Saladin was that of a "modern [19th-century] liberal European gentlemen, beside whom medieval Westerners would always have made a poor showing". Saladin's brother al-Adil "asked Saladin for a thousand of them for his own use and then released them on the spot." Saladin would rise through the ranks of the military where he gained a reputation as a skilled horseman and a gifted polo player. [22] Faced by a superior Crusader-Egyptian force attempting to besiege the city, Shirkuh split his army. Not long after Nur ad-Din's death in 1174, Saladin launched his conquest of Syria, peacefully entering Damascus at the request of its governor. Based in Damascus, Saladin brought together the disparate Muslim regions into a unified force. Saladin felt that Arslan was correct to care for his daughter, but Nur al-Din had taken refuge with him, and therefore he could not betray his trust. His family was of Kurdish descent, and adhered to the Sunni sect of Islam. [126] Saladin in turn stated that there was not a more honorable Christian lord than Richard. According to Baha ad-Din ibn Shaddad, Saladin was born on the same night that his family left Tikrit. Saladin sent a gift to Nur ad-Din, who had been his friend and teacher, 60,000 dinars, "wonderful manufactured goods", some jewels, and an elephant. In The Divine Comedy he is mentioned as one of the virtuous non-Christians in limbo,[123] and he is also depicted favorably in Boccaccio's The Decameron. He saw that the lamps were displaced and beside his bed laid hot scones of the shape peculiar to the Assassins with a note at the top pinned by a poisoned dagger. It was in this position that he saw his first battles of the Crusades, leading troops against Crusaders near Giza, in Egypt. His forces in Hama won a victory over their enemy and brought the spoils, together with many prisoners of war, to Saladin who ordered the captives to be beheaded for "plundering and laying waste the lands of the Faithful". [19] After Shawar was successfully reinstated as vizier, he demanded that Shirkuh withdraw his army from Egypt for a sum of 30,000 gold dinars, but he refused, insisting it was Nur ad-Din's will that he remain. He is widely revered as the ideal of a Warrior-King – fierce in battle and generous to his enemies. The city was besieged, and Saladin very nearly captured it; however, Richard arrived a few days later and defeated Saladin's army in a battle outside the city. He then partially defeated Saladin in a battle at Arsuf. Although the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem continued to exist until the late 13th century, its defeat at Hattin marked a turning point in its conflict with the Muslim powers of the region. It replaced Saladin's reputation as a figure who had been largely forgotten in the Muslim world, eclipsed by more successful figures, such as Baybars of Egypt.[135]. The latter demanded that Nur al-Din return the lands given to him as a dowry for marrying his daughter when he received reports that she was being abused and used to gain Seljuk territory. [106], Tyre, on the coast of modern-day Lebanon, was the last major Crusader city that was not captured by Muslim forces. Lord Saladin Forge is a Titan Guardian and one of two known survivors of the original Iron Lords. According to his biographers, Anne-Marie Eddé[15] and al-Wahrani, Saladin was able to answer questions on Euclid, the Almagest, arithmetic, and law, but this was an academic ideal and it was study of the Qur'an and the "sciences of religion" that linked him to his contemporaries. As for Saladin's daughter, she was Mu'nisah Khatun; she married her cousin al-Kamil Muhammad ibn Adil. People Who Made a Difference in Health Care, Facts about the extraordinary life of Joan of Arc. By 1169, at the age of 31, he had been appointed vizier of the Fatimid caliphate in Egypt as well as commander of the Syrian troops there. Saladin was born Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb, to Najm ad-Din Ayyub and his wife, in the year 1138, at Tikrit, Iraq. Prince of Chivalri, De expugnatione terrae sanctae per Saladinum, Saladin: The Sultan and His Times, 1138–1193, Richard and Saladin: Warriors of the Third Crusade,, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing Kurdish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2017, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Articles needing additional references from March 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with Latin-language sources (la), Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, al-Ẓāfir Muzaffar al-Din Abu al-Abbas Khidr (b.